Mihail C. Roco
National Science Foundation and National Nanotechnology Initiative
Mike Roco is the founding chair of the U.S. National Science and Technology Council's subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology (NSET), and is the Senior Advisor for Nanotechnology at the National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov/eng/staff/mroco.jsp). Prior to joining National Science Foundation, he was professor of mechanical and chemical engineering. Dr. Roco is credited with thirteen inventions, contributed over two hundred articles and twenty books on multiphase systems, computer simulations, laser measurements, nanoparticles and nanosystems, trends in emerging technologies, and societal implications. Recent books include “Convergence of Knowledge, Technology and Society”, "Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020", "Mapping Nanotechnology Knowledge and Innovation”, and "Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cognition Innovations". He proposed the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) on March 11, 1999, at the White House, and is a key architect of the NNI. Dr. Roco is Correspondent Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, Honorary Member of the Romanian Academy, a Fellow of the ASME, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, and a Fellow of the AIChE. He was elected as the Engineer of the Year by the U.S. National Society of Professional Engineers and NSF in 1999 and again in 2004. Dr. Roco is editor-in-chief for the Journal of Nanoparticle Research, and has been a member of international research councils including the International Risk Governance Council in Geneva. He was awarded the National Materials Advancement Award from the Federation of Materials Societies in 2007 “as the individual most responsible for support and investment in nanotechnology by government, industry, and academia worldwide”.
The long term view of nanoscale science and engineering development from basics (200-2010) to system integration (2011-2020) and technological convergence-divergence cycles (2020-2030) is discussed. A twenty year outlook for nanotechnology development was formulated about 2000 (National Nanotechnology Initiative, NNI), with the promise to create basic understanding and a general purpose technology with mass and sustainable use by 2020 (“Nanotechnology Research Directions” Springer 2000; “Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020” Springer 2011, available on www.wtec.org/nano2/). That vision triggered large investments in nanotechnology in the United States and abroad that reached about 75 countries in only few years after the publication of the report. The main scientific advancements and the output in paper publications, patents and their citations are comparatively presented for various regions of the world.
Several current priorities such as nanoelectronics for 2020 and beyond, sustainable nanomanufacturing, nanotechnology for solar energy, nanotechnology knowledge infrastructure, and nanosensors, are outlined. A current focus is on the third generation of nanotechnology products including nanosystems, self-powered nanodevices, and nano-bio assemblies. A dominant trend after ~2000 is envisioned to be spin-off of new science and engineering platforms, immersion of nanotechnology with other emerging and established technologies, in industry, medicine and services, and in education and training for societal progress to become the largest technology driver in economy together with information technology (“Converging Knowledge, Technology and Society: Beyond Nano-Bio-Info-Cognitive Technologies”, Springer 2013, available on www.wtec.org/NBIC2-Report/). The global nanotechnology labor and markets are estimated to double each three years, reaching over $3 trillion market encompassing 6 million jobs by 2020.